Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Genetic engineering terms the targeted modifications of genetic information of living organisms/cells. Genome editing stands for targeted engineering by using specifically designed nucleases. The recent CRISPR/ Cas-9 method uses RNA-guided nuclease. That makes the process faster, easier and more specific compared to other gene editing methods. Since the DNA-binding element is RNA it is simple and cheap to manipulate and it allows sequence specific programming. The high targeting efficiency, results in significant time saving, e.g., for the generation of knockout mice. In basic research CRISPR is mainly used in cell line engineering and animal genetic engineering (e.g. of disease models) to investigate gene function.